The purpose of the study was to review the existing literature on holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy regarding lithotripter settings and laser fibers.
An online search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on holmium laser lithotripsy was performed on several databases, including PubMed, SciElo, and Google Scholar. Relevant studies and original articles about lithotripter settings and laser fibers were examined, and the most important information is summarized and presented here.
We examine how the choice of lithotripter settings and laser fibers influences the performance of holmium laser lithotripsy. Traditional laser lithotripter settings are analyzed, including pulse energy, pulse frequency, and power levels, as well as newly developed long-pulse modes. The impact of these settings on ablation volume, fragment size, and retropulsion is also examined. Advantages of small- and large-diameter laser fibers are discussed, and controversies are highlighted. Additionally, the influence of the laser fiber is examined, specifically the fiber tip preparation and the lithotripter settings' influence on tip degradation.
Many technical factors influence the performance of holmium laser lithotripsy. Knowing and understanding these controllable parameters allows the urologist to perform a laser lithotripsy procedure safely, efficiently, and with few complications.
- PMID: 25185524